There appear to be 2 main shapes and patterns that drive the world:
(1) straight lines
The combination of straight lines and curves in various amalgamations appear to make up both the natural and the man-made world in which we live. Common shapes that arise from these shapes and patterns include the triangle, square, circle, and ellipse.
It is important to understand the shapes and patterns that drive our world because by understanding the building blocks from which the world is derived, you can have a better understanding of the constructions and technology that can be made or invented from those building blocks. Gears, for example, are highly useful and are comprised of a combination of circles, curves, and teeth protruding out from circles. An array of gears one after another, or working in tandem with each other, is another more complex combination built from single gears, that drives more complicated machinery.
In this way, simpler patterns and shapes give rise to more complicated shapes and patterns, which in turn, creates even greater complexity when used together in various ways.