I think that we really need a human structome project analogous to the human genome project that was completed earlier this decade. Although predicting protein structure is nowhere as easy as sequencing DNA, it therefore may require both experimental and theoretical work. At least a rough completion of all major proteins should be attempted.
The current structural database for proteins is probably not that sufficient. If need be, analyzing the structure from other lower level organisms that have more plentiful proteins produced should be easier. Another option would be to perform more crystallization studies in low-gravity environments such as space or simulated low gravity. That would help to speed up the obtaining of suitable crystals for X-ray diffraction.
Understanding the structure of proteins is highly important to understanding how they work. More information on this topic can be found on my post on: Structure Drives Function - Protein Biochemistry and Biology
Also check out a very good article on What is Life and Aging, which gives a broad and basic understanding of biology.