15 March 2011

Obtaining Energy by the Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron

The subject is all about getting energy, renewable, clean, friendly (not dangerous), cheaper, by annihilation(for example, the annihilation of an electron with an anti electron (positron)). The Electron and the positron are obtained by extracting them from atoms; the extraction, consumes a negligible amount of energy. Then, the two particles are brought near one another (collision).The phenomenon of annihilation occurs, when the rest mass is converted totally into energy (gamma photons). Occuring gamma photons, as many as needed to retrieve the total energy of the electron and positron (rest energy and kinetic energy); usually one can get two or three gamma particles (when we have a lower annihilation, ie two antiparticles with lower energy, each with a little beyond rest mass, i.e. the particles are accelerated at a low-speed motion), but we can get more particles when we have a high annihilation (i.e. when the particle energy is high and the particles were strongly accelerated before the collision). The rest energy of an electron-positron pair exceeds slightly 1 MeV (what is an extremely large energy from some as small particles, comparable energy with that achieved by the merger of two much larger particles, having rest mass of about 2000 times higher). Hence the first great advantage of the new method proposed, namely that if the most complex physical phenomenon so far tried to get inside the material energy (hot or cold fusion), draw only about a thousandth part of the rest mass of the particle, resulting in the fusion of two particles practically only the energy gap between energy particles being free and their energy when they are united, the proposed method extract virtually all the internal energy of the particles annihilated. We started with the electron positron pair because these small particles are more easily extracted from the atoms (the atoms are then immediately regenerated naturally, which determines the nature of renewable energy from the annihilation of particles). Next step is to test the annihilation between a proton and an antiproton, because their mass is about 1800 times higher than that of the electron and positron, resulting in their annihilation as an energy by about 1000 times higher, i.e. instead of 1 MeV, 1 GeV (is considered as the only real obtained energy, the energy donated by the proton of the hydrogen ion; but the energy of an antiproton is considered to be donated by us almost entirely, for now, because to obtain today an antiproton we must accelerate some particles at very high-energy and then collide them).     So the real comparison must to be made between the deuterons fusion and annihilation process of a hydrogen ion (proton) with an antiproton. It will be a difference of energy of about 1000 times higher per pair of particles used, in favor of the annihilation process. Practically it achieves the dream of extracting energy from all the substance. Another great advantage of this method is that no radioactive substances occur and no radioactive wastes come out of the process. From this process we obtain only gamma photons (i.e. energy) and possibly other energetic mini particles. The process does not pose any threat to humans and the environment. The energy produced is clean. The technology required is much simpler than nuclear (fission or fusion), cheaper and easier to maintain. Enough energy is given by the annihilation process (virtually unlimited), cheap, clean, safe, renewable immediately (sustainable), with technology made simple.

     We can extract the energy of the rest mass of an electron. For a pair of an electron and a positron this energy is circa 1 MeV. The "synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light source)" produces deliberated a radiation source. Electrons are accelerated to high speeds in several stages to achieve a final energy (that is typically in the GeV range). We need two synchrotrons, a synchrotron for electrons and another who accelerates positrons. The particles must to be collided, after they are being accelerated to an optimal energy level. All the energies are collected at the exit of the Synchrotrons, after the collision of the opposite particles. We will recover the accelerating energy, and in addition we also collect the rest energy of the electrons and positrons.
     At a rate of 10^19 electrons/s we obtain an energy of about 7 GWh / year, if even are produced only half of the possible collisions. This high rate can be obtained with 60 pulses per minute and 10^19 electrons per pulse, or with 600 pulses per minute and 10^18 electrons per pulse. If we increase the flow rate of 1,000 times, we can have a power of about 7 TWh / year. This type of energy can be a complement of the fusion energy, and together they must replace the energy obtained by burning hydrocarbons.
     Advantages of the annihilation of an electron with a positron, compared with the nuclear fission reactors, are disposal of radioactive waste, of the risk of explosion and of the chain reaction.
     Energy from the rest mass of the electron is more easily controlled compared with the fusion reaction, cold or hot.
     Now, we don't need enriched radioactive fuel (as in nuclear fission case), by deuterium, lithium and of accelerated neutrons (like in the cold fusion), of huge temperatures and pressures (as in the hot fusion), etc.

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